Layer Seven Security

Visualize Security Risks for SAP Systems with Threat Maps

Threat Maps in SAP Solution Manager visualize security vulnerabilities, missing patches and open alerts for SAP systems across geolocations. They provide a fast and intuitive way to display and interact with security information for SAP landscapes that span multiple cities, countries, or regions.

System data is maintained in the Landscape Management Database (LMDB) of SAP Solution Manager. The LMDB stores information related to technical systems, hosts, databases and domains in SAP landscapes. This includes installed software components and versions, database types and releases, clients, instances, RFC destinations and OS details for SAP systems.

Attributes for systems are maintained directly in the LMDB. Systems can be assigned to business units using the Description attribute. The environment and priority level for systems are maintained using the attributes IT Admin Role and Priority.  The coordinates for business units in terms of longitude and latitude are maintained in the Location attribute, separated by a comma.

The system attributes maintained in the LMDB integrate directly with the Threat Map, accessible from the Fiori launchpad in Solution Manager.

Users can switch between results for vulnerabilities, patches and alerts using the toolbar at the top of the application.

The size and opacity of geocircles is driven by quantitative and qualitative factors including volume, rating, environment and system priority.

Results are summarized for each business unit. However, users can drilldown to detailed results by clicking on the geocircles.

Map filters support filtering based on system, environment and priority.

Results can also be filtered by period to display results from the current day to the prior year.

The Threat Map can be customized to focus on specific countries or regions. Navigation tools support zoom in and out. The map also supports click and drag for navigation.

Map filters and positions can be saved to the Fiori launchpad as custom tiles.

The Threat Map is bundled in the Cybersecurity Extension for SAP Solution Manager available from Layer Seven Security.

Automating SAP Audits with Solution Manager

According to IDC, 80% of ERP applications are audited at least once every 12 months. Driven by regulatory requirements, audits can drain valuable resources from projects targeted at business growth. They can also lead to audit fatigue and undermine relationships between IT and audit stakeholders.

Compliance Reporting in SAP Solution Manager enables organizations to automate audits for SAP systems and reallocate resources to projects and audits focused on other organizational goals. The continuous monitoring powered by the application also enables auditors to identify compliance gaps immediately rather than at the end of a reporting period. This can reduce regulatory risk by providing owners with more time to remediate control gaps.

Compliance Reporting is accessed from the Fiori launchpad in SAP Solution Manager. Results are automatically updated by daily scheduled scans.

Compliance frameworks and systems are selected in the report filter. There are optional filters to select specific control requirements and systems based on environment or priority. Reports can also be filtered to include or exclude controls based on risk rating and compliance result.  

Compliance Reporting currently supports the frameworks below. This includes CIS, IT-SOX, NIST and PCI-DSS. Support for additional frameworks including GDPR and NERC CIP is expected at the end of Q2 2020. Customers can import custom frameworks to automate auditing for internal security policies and other requirements.

Results for applications and databases are reported in separate columns. The report provides an overall compliance score based on the selected framework and systems. Results are summarized for each requirement.

Users can drilldown into each requirement to review the results for specific controls. Control ratings and descriptions are included in the report to support analysis.

Reports can be exported to CSV or PDF. The Report Detail option specifies whether results are exported at the Requirement, Control or Description level.

Layer Seven Security Recognized as Top 25 Cyber Security Company

Layer Seven Security has been selected by a panel of experts and members of the CIO Applications editorial board for inclusion in the Top 25 Cyber Security Companies for 2020. The annual list is compiled by CIO Applications to recognize and promote organizations that provide cutting-edge cybersecurity solutions. CIO Applications is a Silicon Valley industry publication based in San Francisco, California. The recognition is based on an evaluation of Layer Seven Security’s innovative Cybersecurity Extension for SAP Solution Manager. The Extension is an add-on for the Solution Manager platform, delivering automated vulnerability management, threat detection and incident response for business-critical SAP systems. Read the full article at CIO Applications.

Security Forensics with SAP Solution Manager

Security Forensics in SAP Solution Manager supports centralized log monitoring for SAP landscapes. The Fiori application from Layer Seven Security enables users to analyze incidents across multiple logs and systems directly from Solution Manager, helping organizations to detect and respond to security breaches. It also protects against anti-forensics.  Since event logs are replicated to a central log, attackers can not remove all traces of their actions to avoid detection.

Security Forensics is accessed from the Fiori launchpad for SAP Solution Manager.

The application currently supports the Security Audit Log, Gateway Server log, HTTP log, Transaction log, Read Access Log, System Log, User Change logs, and the HANA Audit log. Support for the Java Security Log and SAProuter log is scheduled for Q3 2020.

Advanced Search supports complex queries based on system, log source, date, time, user, source terminal/ IP address, and event ID.

Log Source:

Source terminal/ IP address:

Date/Time:

The query below filters log events to isolate actions performed by the SAP* user. The query results reveal that the SAP* user was locked due to failed logon attempts in system AS2 at 10:30:00 on 23.03.2020.

The results can be exported to a csv file to support offline analysis and collaboration. Event details can also be appended directly to an email by selecting the Notify option from the drilldown.

Personalized alarms for events can be configured using the Save As Tile option for filter selections.

Alarms are displayed as custom tiles in the launchpad. Below we have added an alarm for log events related to the SAP* user in production systems. The tile will automatically update to display the number of matching records. Users can click on the alarm to view the details of the events.

Security Forensics is available for SAP Solution Manager 7.2 SP07 or higher. The application is available for both HANA and conventional database platforms.  For the latter, customizing options are provided to activate log monitoring for only specific managed systems and adjust the log retention period.

Webinar Playback: SIEM Integration for SAP

Security Information and Event Management (SIEM) systems support centralized security monitoring across networks. They ingest and analyze data from hosts, routers, switches, firewalls and other components to identify and respond to security threats.

SIEM systems can ingest data directly from SAP application logs. However, direct integration is complex and laborious. It also requires high maintenance and may substantially increase costs if SIEM licensing is tied to log size or events per second.

This challenge can be overcome by integrating SAP logs with SIEM systems using SAP Solution Manager, a management server in SAP landscapes. Solution Manager filters, structures and enriches security event data in SAP logs to support fast, seamless integration with SIEM systems.

This webinar recording discusses the challenges of direct ingestion of SAP logs and the benefits of integration using Solution Manager. It also provides recommendations for configuring audit settings and policies for the following data sources in SAP:

Security Audit Log
System Log
ICM Log
Business Transaction Analysis
Gateway Log
Change Documents
Read Access Log
Java Security Log
HANA Audit Log
SAProuter Log

The webinar is a digest of the whitepaper SIEM Integration for SAP.

You can download the whitepaper here.

Prevent Configuration Drift with SAP Solution Manager

Maintaining system security in dynamic SAP environments is a constant challenge. New users are added every day. Permissions for existing users are constantly updated to keep up with changing requirements. Software updates, transports and other changes introduce new components or developments and often necessitate changes to system settings. With each change, even hardened systems can become less secure and more vulnerable to intrusion.  

To some extent, the risk of configuration drift can be managed through regular vulnerability scanning. However, scan results only identify the consequences of changes, not the root cause. Periodic audits of system and user changes can also help to address the risk. Audits can uncover compliance gaps against change management protocols, but are limited in scope since they are usually performed manually.

Change Analysis in SAP Solution Manager provides an automated response to the risk of configuration drift in SAP systems. The application tracks changes in systems including ABAP, HANA, Java parameters, database and operating system settings, user privileges, notes, software updates, and transport requests. The tool maintains a history of changes performed in each system for two years.

Change Analysis is accessed from the Root Cause Analysis work center in the Fiori launchpad for SAP Solution Manager.

Scope selection supports filtering of changes by system, type or environment.

Results can be filtered further to focus on changes within a specific time frame.

The filtered results are summarized in the dashboard below.

The dashboard supports drilldown from summarized results by system and category into detailed changes. In the example below, the results reveal that the value of parameter gw/accept_timeout was modified in system AS2 at 3.00PM on February 11, 2020.

In another example, the results reveal that the profile SAP_ALL was assigned to the user ATTACKER9 on the same day in the identical system.

Notifications for changes to critical areas can be configured using the monitoring and alerting framework within Solution Manager. The notification below is an alert for changes to RFC destinations. Email and SMS notifications for changes are also supported. Alerts can be integrated with SIEM systems or incident management systems for automated ticketing.

Change Reporting can be used to compare the configuration of different systems.

It can also be used to compare the configuration of the same system using different timestamps. In the example below, we are comparing the configuration of system ECP on February 6 with January 22 to identify changes that occurred in the system during the interval.

The comparison tool is useful for identifying not only changes that may lead to configuration drift within systems but also differences between settings in production environments and other environments such as quality or development. The comparison results are displayed in the Result Details and can be exported for analysis. According to the results below, the SAP_UI component was upgraded in ECP from version 751 to 753 during the interval.

Whitepaper: SIEM Integration for SAP

Download the new whitepaper for SAP-SIEM integration from Layer Seven Security. The whitepaper outlines recommended settings for the Security Audit Log, HANA audit log, and other logs to support advanced threat detection. It discusses the challenges of direct integration of SAP logs with SIEM systems in terms of complexity, log volume, maintenance, and event correlation.

The whitepaper advocates SIEM integration using SAP Solution Manager based on benefits such as lower complexity, rapid deployment, reduced costs, ease of maintenance, and the enrichment of event data to support cross-platform correlation.

The SIEM Integrator for SAP is a software add-on for SAP Solution Manager that delivers automated threat detection for SAP systems. The add-on supports integration with SIEM platforms including Splunk, QRadar, ArcSight, LogRhythm and SolarWinds. The Integrator includes 300+ attack detection patterns for SAP platforms and logs.

SIEM Integration with SAP Solution Manager

Security Information and Event Management (SIEM) platforms combine the ability to collect log data from applications, hosts, routers, switches, firewalls and other endpoints with the ability to analyze events in real time. They support threat detection, event correlation and incident response with alerting and reporting capabilities.

SIEM platforms require complete coverage for maximum yield. In other words, organizations reap the full benefits of SIEM platforms when monitoring logs throughout the technological infrastructure. This includes SAP application logs for organizations with SAP systems.

However, there are several challenges with integrating SAP application logs with SIEM systems. The first is complexity. SAP systems typically contain multiple logs that capture security-relevant events. The SAP NetWeaver Application Server ABAP (AS ABAP) alone has at least seven such logs including the Security Audit Log, Gateway Server Log, HTTP Log, System Log, Transaction Log, Change Document Log, and the Read Access Log. The logs do not have a standardized format or structure. Some are captured at the file level and others are stored in SAP tables. The complexities involved in integrating multiple and distinct logs from each SAP system should not be underestimated, especially for large SAP landscapes.

The second is log volume. Raw event logs can grow to gigabytes and even terabytes within a relatively short period of time in SAP systems that often support thousands of end users and hundreds of cross-system connections. Transmitting large volumes of log data from SAP systems to SIEM platforms could consume high levels of network bandwidth. The need to store such data for analysis could also increase resource requirements and licensing costs for SIEM systems.

The third challenge with directly integrating SAP logs is maintenance. Monitoring and supporting the numerous integration points between SAP systems and SIEM platforms, as well as regular archiving to deal with the accumulation of log data, could lead to high maintenance costs.  

Finally, many SAP logs do not natively include information to support cross-platform correlation using SIEM tools. This includes source and destination IPs for security events. Values for sources and destinations in SAP logs are often terminal names and SAP Systems IDs (SIDs) rather than IP addresses. Therefore, Security Operation Centers (SOCs) are not able to easily correlate SAP events with non-SAP events in SIEM platforms.

The Cybersecurity Extension for SAP Solution Manager overcomes such obstacles by filtering, normalizing and enriching security event data from SAP logs. The Monitoring and Alerting Infrastructure (MAI) in Solution Manager can be used to monitor logs at source without extracting and replicating event logs to external repositories. This reduces both bandwidth and storage requirements. MAI data providers support monitoring for all SAP logs including file and table logs in ABAP, HANA, and Java systems, and standalone components such as the SAProuter. MAI periodically parses event logs using attack detection patterns configured in metrics. The frequency of metric checks is customizable and can range from every 60 seconds to several minutes apart. Intervals can be adjusted at the metric level which means metrics can have different monitoring intervals.

A pattern match triggers the MAI to generate alerts and email or SMS notifications for security events. Security alerts generated by Solution Manager are managed using applications such as Monitor Systems, System Monitoring and the Alert Inbox. Alerts can also be written to an external file by Solution Manager. Solution Manager enriches event data by including source and IP addresses for each alert written to the file. This is intended to support correlation once the data is ingested by SIEM platforms. Event data is also normalized using a standardized structure for all log sources. The fields and separators for event details within each file are customizable and include values for alert name, description, date, time, system, system type, and event details. The event details can include information such as the event ID, username, source and destination IP addresses, and objects accessed by the user such as transactions, reports, function modules or URLs.  The example below includes <DATE>::<TIME>::<SYSTEM>::<MANAGED OBJECT TYPE>::<ALERT TYPE>::<PRIORITY>::<ALERT NAME>::<ALERT DESCRIPTION>::<ALERT DETAILS>. Each value is separated by ::

Since event details are written to and stored within alerts in Solution Manager, attackers will not be able to remove all traces of their malicious actions by modifying event logs alone.  They will also need to delete alerts and stop the triggering of email/ SMS notifications of alerts in Solution Manager. This would be challenging since alerts cannot be deleted in Solution Manager. They can only be confirmed. All alerts are retained and only removed by periodic housekeeping jobs designed to delete aged alerts.

Event files can be stored on the Solution Manager host or an external host or file server. A new event file is created by Solution Manager for each day. The contents of the newest file can be periodically pushed to SIEM platforms or pulled by SIEM systems directly from relevant directories. Since there is a single point of integration for event data between SAP and SIEM systems, maintenance efforts are relatively low.

This article outlines the benefits of integrating security event data from SAP applications with SIEM platforms using the Cybersecurity Extension for Solution Manager. The benefits include lower costs, rapid deployment, ease of maintenance, and the enrichment of event data to support cross-platform correlation. The example below is for SIEM integration with Solution Manager for Splunk Enterprise. However, the approach can also be used to integrate security event data with other SIEM systems including QRadar, ArcSight and Log Rhythm.

SAP Vulnerability Assessment vs Penetration Testing

Vulnerability assessment and penetration testing both serve important functions for protecting business applications against security threats. The approaches are complementary but should be deployed sequentially. Penetration testing against systems and applications that have not been hardened based on the results of vulnerability assessments is inadvisable since the results are predictable.  The objective of penetration testing is to assess the strength of security defenses, not to exploit ill-equipped and unprepared systems and processes to prove a point.

Therefore, vulnerability assessments should be performed ahead of penetration tests. The results of comprehensive vulnerability scans inform organizations of configuration, program, user and other weaknesses that could be exploited to compromise systems during real or simulated attacks. The recommendations resulting from the assessments enable organizations to remediate security weaknesses using a prioritized approach. It also supports the implementation of counter measures to detect and respond to potential attacks.

Once systems are hardened and defenses are prepared, performing a penetration test is a valuable exercise to test the adequacy of security mechanisms. The lessons learned from the discovery and exploitation of vulnerabilities during penetration tests can be applied to address areas that may have been overlooked or inadequately secured after vulnerability assessments. Penetration testing against hardened systems that are actively monitored for attacks forces pen testers to exercise more complex and difficult attack vectors. It also compels pen testers to deploy evasive techniques to avoid detection. This improves the quality of penetration tests and the reliability of the results, providing a stronger litmus test for system security, threat detection and incident response.

Monitoring Security Alerts with SAP Solution Manager

There are several apps available in SAP Solution Manager for monitoring security alerts for SAP systems. The most longstanding is the Alert Inbox which provides an overview of alerts by process area. Guided procedures for investigating security alerts are executed from the Alert Inbox. Another option is System Monitoring which provides a more user-friendly interface for navigating incidents than the Alert Inbox. System Monitoring includes the Alert Ticker displayed in the right pane of the app for monitoring incidents in real-time.

SAP Solution Manager 7.2 SP07 introduced a third option for monitoring alerts called Monitor Systems. The app is delivered in the new work center Application Operations.

System Monitoring and the Alert Inbox are Web Dynpro applications. Monitor Systems, however, is a SAPUI5 application based on the Fiori framework. Therefore, Monitor Systems delivers exceptional performance with alerts loading and refreshing at much faster rates than both the Alert Inbox and System Monitoring. The performance gains are considerable even for SAP Solution Manager installations running on conventional databases rather than SAP HANA.   

You can access Monitor Systems from the SAP Fiori Launchpad using the roles SAP_STUI_APPOPS_AUTH and SAP_STUI_APPOPS_TCR.

The initial screen summarizes alerts open alerts by systems and components.

Alerts are categorized by the groups below. Security alerts triggered by the Cybersecurity Extension for SAP Solution Manager are categorized in the Configuration and Exception classes.

Results can be filtered or sorted by clicking by system and category.

Systems can also be labeled as favorites for fast selection.

You can view details of open alerts for each system by clicking on the system. Below are alerts for security configuration issues impacting system AS2.

Below are security exceptions detected through real-time monitoring of event logs in the system.

We can drill down into the details of each alert by clicking on Critical Metrics. For example, we can investigate the alert below for the Actions by the Standard SAP* User Alert by reviewing the relevant metric.

The Metric Details reveals that there was an attempted logon with the SAP* user from IP address 10.8.91.2 at 12:51 on 2019-08-14. We can execute a guided procedure that will investigate other actions from the source IP directly in the Security Audit Log.

The results can be shared with security operations teams through email by clicking on the Notify option in the Metric Details.

In another example, we can drill down into the alert for active users logged into the system with SAP_ALL in their user buffer to investigate potential privilege escalation. The profile should not be used in productive systems.