Layer Seven Security

64% of ERP Systems Have Experienced Security Breaches Between 2017-19

According to the findings of a recent independent survey of 430 IT decision makers, 64 percent of ERP deployments have experienced security breaches in the past 24 months. The findings are published in the report ERP Security: The Reality of Business Application Protection. In the words of the IDC, “ERP applications such as SAP can be foundational for businesses. A breach of such critical ERP applications can lead to unexpected downtime, increased compliance risk, diminished brand confidence and project delays…..Cyber miscreants seem to be indiscriminate when it comes to ERP systems, having an appetite for all types of data, which, if in the wrong hands, could be detrimental to the business in terms of revenue and reputation.”

The survey revealed that of the 64% of organizations that reported security breaches in ERP systems, the majority included the compromise of sensitive data including sales data in 50%  of cases, as well as HR data (45%), customer data (41%), financial data (34%) and intellectual property (36%).  

The survey also revealed the following:

  • The estimated cost of downtimes in ERP applications is $50,000 or more per hour at almost two thirds of organizations
  • 62% of ERP systems may have critical vulnerabilities
  • 74% of ERP applications are accessible from the Internet
  • 56% of executives are concerned or very concerned about moving ERP applications to the cloud

According to the former Chairman of the Global Board of the Institute of Internal Auditors (IIA), “The findings of this independent survey should raise questions at the Board level about the adequacy of internal controls to prevent cyber attacks and the level of auditing taking place. The lack of these controls is one way for cyber insurance companies to deny claims….The information compromised most often according to this research is the highest regulated in today’s business ecosystem. Most concerning is the popularity of sales, financial data and PII, all of which should raise flags about the possibility of insider trading, collusion and fraud.”

SAP ERP installations can be protected against cyber attack using the Cybersecurity Extension for SAP Solution Manager. The extension implements automated vulnerability and patch management, and security incident detection and response for SAP systems, without requiring additional hardware or agents.

10KBLAZE: Secure Your Systems with SAP Solution Manager

On May 2, the Department of Homeland Security issued an alert for SAP customers in response to the disclosure of new exploits targeting vulnerable SAP components. According to some reports, the so-called 10KBLAZE exploits could impact 90% of SAP installations worldwide. The exploits target misconfigurations in the gateway server and message server installed in most SAP systems including S/4HANA, ERP and CRM. The successful execution of the exploits could enable attackers to exfiltrate or modify data and provoke a denial of service without authentication. In other words, attackers can completely compromise target SAP systems without any user credentials.

The new exploits target known vulnerabilities addressed by notes and advisories released by SAP since 2005.  Note 821875 details measures to secure the message server, including restricting external access, separating internal and external communications, and maintaining secure access control lists. The profile parameter ms/monitor should be set to 0 to prevent external programs such as msmon from administering the message server at the operating system level. Access to transaction SMMS should also be restricted since the setting can be changed dynamically using the Message Server Monitor within the application server. A separate port for internal communication between application servers should be defined using parameter rdisp/msserv_internal. This will prevent external clients from intercepting or rerouting internal message server communications.  The port should not be exposed to clients or intranets. Finally, the parameter ms/acl_info should specify the file containing a restrictive access control list of hosts, domains, IP addresses or subnets for application servers permitted to log on with the message server.

ACLs should also be defined for the gateway server to control access to starting external programs.  This can be performed using the gateway security file sec_info. The correct syntax for the file depends on the kernel level. For kernel 7.20 and higher, the setting USER-HOST=LOCAL is recommended to protect against 10KBLAZE exploits. This will allow connections from the same server instance. The setting USER-HOST=INTERNAL could be vulnerable but is required for SID clusters. For detailed guidance, refer to Note 1408081. The ACLs should be supported by the setting gw/acl_mode to 1. This parameter defines the behavior of the gateway server if sec_info does not exist.

Since some 10KBLAZE exploits are targeted at modifying or redirecting data packets, enabling SNC to authenticate and encrypt client-server communications is recommended.

SAP systems vulnerable to 10KBLAZE exploits can be discovered using SAP Solution Manager. The Cybersecurity Extension for SAP Solution Manager automatically monitors security settings for the message server and gateway server including profile parameter settings, access control lists and users with critical transactions such as SMMS. The extension also monitors message and gateway logs for external monitor commands, successful and unsuccessful program starts, and other events. Alerts are triggered by the extension for suspected exploits.

The example below illustrates how you can discover insecure sec_info entries that could expose systems to 10KBLAZE exploits.

Click on Vulnerability Report in the Fiori Launchpad.

SAP Cybersecurity Extension for Solution Manager 10

Filter by ABAP systems, select the check-box for the target system and click on Display.

SAP Cybersecurity Extension for Solution Manager 09

Filter for vulnerabilities in open status within the area of RFC Security. Click on the check for starting of external programs.

SAP Cybersecurity Extension for Solution Manager 08

Review the details and recommendation. Click on the linked SAP Notes and SAP Help.

SAP Cybersecurity Extension for Solution Manager 07

Click on Additional Information to review the insecure entries in the sec_info ACL.

SAP Cybersecurity Extension for Solution Manager 03

Focus on entries with the setting USER-HOST=internal.

Click on the download icon to export the current settings.

If required, add comments in the Comment section.

SAP Cybersecurity Extension for Solution Manager 04

The finding for the system will be automatically removed from the report once the sec_info entries are updated. However, you can manually change the status using the Change Status option. Note that status changes are tracked in the extension.

SAP Cybersecurity Extension for Solution Manager 05

You can also assign responsibility for remediating the finding to specific groups using the Change Owner option.

SAP Cybersecurity Extension for Solution Manager 06

Securing Administrative Access in SAP AS Java

The misuse of administrative privileges is a common method used by attackers to compromise applications and propagate attacks to connected systems. The elevated privileges granted to administrative accounts are a prized target for attackers and provide a fast path to accessing or modifying sensitive data, programs and system settings.

User privileges for Java applications are administered through the User Management Engine (UME) in the SAP NetWeaver Application Server for Java (AS Java). The UME is the default user store for AS Java and can be configured to use LDAP directories, AS ABAP, or the system database of AS Java as the data source for user-related data.

UME permissions granted to users can include administrative actions such as Manage_All, Manage_Roles, Manage_Users, Manage_User_Passwords, and other privileged functions. Administrative actions are bundled into roles and granted to users organized into user groups. Standard user groups include the Administrator group, as well as groups such as SAP_J2EE_ADMIN and SAP_SLD_ADMINISTRATOR. The latter includes users with administrative access to the System Landscape Directory.  Standard roles include Super Admin and, for Enterprise Portals running on AS Java, Portal System Admin, Portal User Admin and Portal Content Admin.

Access to administrative roles and rights in AS Java should be granted to required users only, based on the principle of least privilege. Users with administrative privileges in AS Java systems can be detected using the Cybersecurity Extension for SAP Solution Manager. The results are displayed in security reports and dashboards. Alerts are also triggered by the extension for new users granted privileged roles and actions for possible privilege escalations. The extension also detects users with administrative rights in ABAP and HANA platforms, as well as SAP-compatible databases including IBM, Microsoft, Oracle and Sybase.

 

Webinar Recording: Security Analytics with SAP Web Intelligence

Watch the webinar replay to learn how to visualize security risks in your SAP systems using interactive reports in SAP Web Intelligence. Powered by the BusinessObjects platform, Web Intelligence connects directly to data sources in SAP Solution Manager to convey system vulnerabilities, missing security notes and open alerts using dynamic charts and graphs and detailed tables.

Join the global leaders in security monitoring with SAP Solution Manager to learn how to:

– Discover security vulnerabilities
– Manage missing patches
– Detect alerts for security incidents
– Collaborate and track remediation efforts using comments
– Filter and sort report data
– Export and share results
– Access reports remotely

We will also demonstrate how you can trial Web Intelligence using Layer Seven’s cloud platform.

Watch Now

 

 

Secure, Patch & Respond: Security Analytics with SAP Web Intelligence

SAP Web Intelligence enables users to visualize and manage security risks in SAP systems using interactive reports delivered through an intuitive web interface. Powered by the BusinessObjects platform, Web Intelligence connects directly to data sources in SAP Solution Manager to convey system vulnerabilities, missing security notes and open alerts using dynamic charts and graphs and detailed tables.

Animated charts summarize risks by system, location, priority and other dimensions. Results can be filtered and sorted to focus on specific areas. Users can comment on report elements for collaboration, decision-making and tracking remediation efforts. Reports can be exported to Excel, HTML and PDF. Reports can also be accessed remotely using the mobile app for SAP BusinessObjects.

The security reports are comprised of five distinct sections. The first section includes a series of charts that summarize risks across three dimensions: vulnerabilities, security notes, and alerts. The results can be filtered to focus on single or multiple systems.

The second section includes trend charts, bar graphs, geo-maps and bubble charts that break down the results for each dimension.

The remaining sections convey detailed findings and empower users to secure SAP systems against cyber threats by discovering and removing vulnerabilities, applying patches, and responding to alerts for suspected security breaches.

To learn more, contact Layer Seven Security. You can also request a free trial for security reporting with SAP Web Intelligence using Layer Seven’s cloud platform.

 

Coming Soon: Security Reporting with SAP Web Intelligence

SAP Web Intelligence (WebI) provides a platform for self-service reporting that enables users to analyze and visualize data from SAP systems using an intuitive, interactive and web-based interface. WebI supports BEx queries to connect to security-related data in Business Warehouse within Solution Manager. Users can create dynamic reports with embedded dashboards to monitor and manage risks and track remediation efforts. Reports are published to the BI Launch Pad to support enterprise-wide access through a web browser. They can also be refreshed, scheduled and broadcast from the Launch Pad.

Stay tuned for more details.

 

How to Comply with the DHS Recommendations for Securing SAP Systems from Cyber Attacks

In response to the dramatic rise of cyber attacks targeting ERP applications, the United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) issued a warning earlier this year that encouraged organizations to respond to the risks targeted at their business applications by implementing specific measures to secure, patch and monitor SAP systems. The measures included scanning for vulnerabilities and missing security patches, managing SAP interfaces, and monitoring user behaviour, indicators of compromise, and compliance against security baselines for systems.

This article discusses how you can leverage SAP Solution Manager to comply with the DHS recommendations. Solution Manager is installed and available in most SAP landscapes and includes diagnostics and monitoring applications to support cybersecurity. The specific applications are outlined below against each of the DHS recommendations.

1. Scan systems for all known vulnerabilities, such as missing security patches and dangerous system configurations.

Configuration Validation in Solution Manager can perform automatic daily scans of SAP systems against security benchmarks to identify misconfigurations that could expose systems to cyber threats. The scans are performed against snapshots of systems stored in the Configuration and Change Database (CCDB). The results of the scans are stored in an internal Business Warehouse (BW). Service Level Reports and Security Dashboards connect to BW using BEx queries to read the results of the security scans and report the findings.

System Recommendations (SysRec) in Solution Manager connects directly to SAP Support to discover missing security patches.  SysRec also connects to each system in an SAP landscape to determine the current patch level. It reads the system information in the Landscape and Management Database (LMDB) to identify installed software components and versions. SysRec also integrates with the ABAP Call Monitor, Usage Procedure Logging, and Solution Documentation to perform change impact analysis for security patches.

2. Identify and analyze the security settings of SAP interfaces between systems and applications to understand risks posed by these trust relationships.

Interface and Connection Monitoring (ICMon) in Solution Manager automatically maps cross-system interfaces including RFC, HTTP, IDOC and Web Services. This includes internal and external connections. It also monitors real-time traffic patterns to detect and alert for malicious actions including dangerous RFM and URL executions.

3. Analyze systems for malicious or excessive user authorizations.

Solution Manager can detect users with administrative privileges in SAP systems. It flags users with privileged authorizations, profiles, roles, transactions, Java permissions, and HANA system and table privileges. Privileges can include standard and custom objects.

4. Monitor systems for indicators of compromise resulting from the exploitation of vulnerabilities.

The Monitoring and Alerting Infrastructure (MAI) in Solution Manager can monitor event logs in SAP systems to detect and alert for indicators of compromise (IOCs). This includes log files and tables such as the Security Audit Log, HTTP Log, System Log, Gateway Server Log, Change Document Log, Read Access Log, Java Security Log, HANA Audit Log, and the SAProuter Log. The MAI triggers alerts and email and text notifications for IOCs. Guided procedures provide a framework for incident response and tracking.

5. Monitor systems for suspicious user behavior, including both privileged and non-privileged users.

MAI monitors user logs to detect and alert for suspicious behavior covering both privileged and non-privileged users. This includes unauthorized access, escalation of privileges and actions that could lead to data leakage.

6. Apply threat intelligence on new vulnerabilities to improve the security posture against advanced targeted attacks.

SAP Partners periodically update content for Solution Manager to address new vulnerabilities and attack vectors.

7. Define comprehensive security baselines for systems and continuously monitor for compliance violations and remediate detected deviations.

Solution Manager continuously monitors for policy violations against security baselines and compliance frameworks such as GDPR, IT-SOX, NIST and PCI-DSS. Service Level Reports and Dashboards provide directions for implementing and tracking remedial actions taken to patch and secure systems. Guided procedures document incident investigation steps performed by responders. The results are archived in Solution Manager.

To learn more about how Solution Manager can help you comply with the DHS recommendations for securing SAP systems, contact Layer Seven Security.

SAP Solution Manager is ITIL-Certified for Information Security Management

The SAP Integration and Certification Center (ICC) has been validating and certifying solutions from partners and software vendors for over twenty years. The certifications provided by the ICC are based on rigorous testing and enable customers to invest with confidence in technologies that integrate with SAP solutions. This includes technologies that support security scenarios such as automated vulnerability management, code scanning and threat detection.

The ICC cannot certify SAP’s own product offerings since self-certification does not provide the same level of assurance as independent certification. However, SAP platforms are often certified by recognized certification authorities. SAP Solution Manager, for example, is certified by organizations such as SERVIEW. In fact, Solution Manager is one of the most awarded service management platforms in the market and certified for all 18 certifiable processes of the ITIL framework, including Information Security Management.

ITIL is the Information Technology Infrastructure Library and provides best practices to support the design, management and monitoring of IT infrastructure and optimization of service levels for end users. The framework consists of five distinct lifecycle phases for service strategy, design, transition, operations, and continuous improvement. It includes key performance indicators to identify problems, measure performance, and track progress.

IT Security Management is a process within the Service Design lifecycle of the most recent version of the ITIL framework. It includes four sub-processes for the design of security controls, the performance of regular security reviews, and the management of security incidents. The sub-processes are targeted at preventing, detecting and containing security intrusions and breaches. The chart below maps each sub-process to relevant applications available in SAP Solution Manager.

ITIL v3 – IT Security Management

Applications such as Configuration Validation, Service Level Reporting and the Dashboard Builder enable customers to enforce security baselines for SAP landscapes and monitor compliance against security KPIs. System Recommendations automatically detects missing security patches through a direct connection to SAP support. Interface Monitoring detects potential breaches of cross-system connections. Finally, the Monitoring and Alerting Infrastructure and Guided Procedures provide an advanced framework for detecting and responding to security incidents and suspected breaches. Overall, Solution Manager provides a powerful ITIL-compliant platform for defining, implementing and sustaining secure SAP system landscapes.

 

Featured in SAPinsider: Secure Your SAP Landscapes with SAP Solution Manager 7.2

Firewalls, intrusion detection systems, and antivirus solutions may not protect SAP systems against advanced cyberattacks. However, this does not necessarily mean that SAP customers have to license third-party vulnerability scanning or threat detection solutions to deal with the risk. The answer to their security questions may be closer than they realize. Bundled with standard and enterprise SAP support agreements, SAP Solution Manager 7.2 includes five integrated applications to safeguard SAP systems against cyber threats:

Service Level Reporting (SLR)
Dashboard Builder
System Recommendations
Interface and Connection Monitoring (ICMon)
and the Monitoring and Alerting Infrastructure (MAI)

Read the full article

Q&A: Cybersecurity Monitoring with SAP Solution Manager

How does Solution Manager detect threats and vulnerabilities in SAP systems? What specific applications in SolMan are used for vulnerability, patch and threat management? What are the requirements for using these areas? How long does it take to configure? What are the differences between monitoring using SolMan 7.1 and 7.2? What are the benefits of using SolMan versus third party tools? Why should you partner with Layer Seven Security to help you leverage the cybersecurity capabilities of SAP Solution Manager?

Discover the answers to these and many other questions in the new Q&A section and learn how you can immediately protect your SAP systems from advanced threats using tools you already own and an approach recommended by SAP.

Remember to bookmark the page since we will be updating the questions and answers periodically. Also, feel free to submit your questions for our experts in the comments below.

Q: What is SAP Solution Manager?
A: Solution Manager is the most widely deployed SAP product after ECC. It’s installed in almost all SAP landscapes and is used for application lifecycle activities such as system patching and upgrades, change management, incident management, and system monitoring.

Q: How is Solution Manager licensed?
A: Usage rights for Solution Manager are bundled with SAP support and maintenance agreements. SAP Enterprise Support customers can manage their whole IT infrastructure with Solution Manager. Customers with Standard Support can manage SAP products within their IT landscapes with Solution Manager. Licensing for SAP HANA is included with the usage rights for SAP Solution Manager 7.2.

Q: What security tools are available in Solution Manager?
A: There are several applications in Solution Manger that should be used for advanced security monitoring. We recommend Service Level Reporting, Security Dashboards, System Recommendations, Interface Monitoring and Security Alerting.

Q: Why doesn’t Layer Seven Security recommend the EWA and SOS reports?
E: There are drawbacks with both reports. The EarlyWatch Alert (EWA) performs some security checks but is not specifically a security report. Therefore, the range and volume of checks performed by EWA for security is low. The Security Optimization Service (SOS) provides better coverage but is not fully automated. You must submit a service request to run SOS for ABAP systems. Service requests to run SOS for Java systems must be submitted to SAP.

Q: What are Service Level Reports?
A: Service Level Reports (SLR) automate vulnerability reporting for SAP systems. They perform scheduled checks for hundreds of security weaknesses for ABAP, HANA and Java systems and automatically distribute the results via email, SFTP or the Enterprise Portal. SLRs include detailed descriptions for findings, risk ratings, links to relevant SAP Notes and guidance at the SAP Help Portal and compliance scorecards for frameworks such as NIST, PCI DSS and IT-SOX.

Q: How do SLRs work?
A: SLRs read the results of automated daily vulnerability scans performed by Solution Manager for SAP systems. The results are checked against security KPIs during runtime. SLRs are typically scheduled to run on a weekly or monthly schedule.

Q: Are SLRs available in multiple languages?
A: Yes, SLRs can be run in any language including French, German, Spanish, Arabic, Japanese, and Mandarin.

Q: Are SLRs customizable?
A: Yes, you can customize every aspect of service level reports including the design, layout, security checks, and KPI metrics and thresholds.

Q: Can you provide a sample Service Level Report?
A: Yes, submit your request here.

Q: What is System Recommendations?
A: System Recommendations is an application in Solution Manger that performs automated patch management for SAP systems. It connects directly to SAP Support to download required security notes and monitor the status of notes implemented in systems through regular background jobs.

Q: Does System Recommendations also download and apply corrections?
A: Yes, System Recommendations downloads corrections from SAP Support to target systems. The user is automatically directed to SNOTE in the target systems once the corrections are downloaded.

Q: Does System Recommendations identify the impact of security patches?
A: Yes, System Recommendations integrates with applications in Solution Manager to perform change impact analysis and discover programs, function modules, transactions, reports and business processes effected by notes.

Q: Does System Recommendations integrate with Change Request Management (ChaRM)?
A: Yes, System Recommendations includes the option to automatically generate a change request for required notes.

Q: What are Security Dashboards?
A: Security Dashboards monitor critical key performance indicators to track vulnerabilities and threats across SAP landscapes in real-time.

Q: What type of metrics are monitored by Security Dashboards?
A: The Dashboards connect to data stores in Solution Manager for event-driven alerts and system and user level vulnerabilities. Users can drilldown from aggregated results to detailed values.

Q: What type of data visualizations are available in the Security Dashboards?
Users can select from column, line, pie, scatter and other charts and Fiori tiles and tables.

Q: What is Interface Monitoring?
A: Interface Monitoring is used to map and track system interfaces in SAP landscapes including RFC, HTTP, IDoc and Web Service connections. It automatically creates a topology of system interfaces and monitors the usage of the interfaces in real-time. Alerts can be generated for channel metrics including availability, configuration and performance.

Q: What is Security Alerting?
A: Security Alerting is based on the Monitoring and Alerting Infrastructure (MAI) of Solution Manager. MAI connects to data providers including event logs to monitor for security vulnerabilities and incidents. MAI generates automatic notifications for security incidents including emails and text messages.

Q: What type of security vulnerabilities and events are monitored by MAI?
A: MAI monitors system-level vulnerabilities such as the enabling of the invoker servlet in Java systems, insecure entries in access control lists for gateway servers, vulnerable RFC destinations, missing security notes, and many other areas. It also monitors KPIs for user-level security including users with dangerous profiles such as SAP_ALL and unlocked standard users.

Q: Can you perform threat detection using MAI in Solution Manager?
A: Yes, MAI includes file and database connectors for real-time monitoring of event data captured in SAP logs. This includes the security audit log, HANA log, UME log, HTTP log, gateway server log, and the Read Access Log.

Q: Can you integrate MAI alerts with Security Information Event Management (SIEM) and incident management systems?
A: Yes, MAI alerts can be automatically forwarded to SIEM systems such as Splunk, ArcSight, and QRadar for event correlation and forensic analysis. Alerts can also be forwarded to incident management systems such as BMC Remedy and ServiceNow.

Q: Does Solution Manager provide best practices for alert handling?
A: Yes, the Guided Procedure (GP) Framework in Solution Manager provides best practices and standard operating procedures for investigating and resolving security alerts. This standardizes and improves incident management procedures and reduces response times. The guided procedures include automated steps to further improve incident handling.

Q: What are the main differences between SAP Enterprise Threat Detection (ETD) and threat detection using SAP Solution Manager?
A: SAP ETD provides more advanced capabilities for event correlation and forensic analysis. However, Solution Manager can forward event data to SIEM systems that can correlate and analyze data on a wider scale than ETD by combining data from SAP and non-SAP sources. Also, ETD does not monitor for system-level vulnerabilities or provide guided procedures for alert handling.

Q: What are the requirements for using the security applications in Solution Manager?
A: The security applications are available in any SP level of Solution Manager versions 7.1 and 7.2. The only requirements are the completion of the SOLMAN_SETUP procedures for the relevant version.

Q: What are the differences between Solution Manager 7.1 ad 7.2 for security monitoring?
A: The main difference is the user-experience. Solution Manager 7.2 provides the improved Fiori interface including a launchpad for direct access to applications. Some functions such as automatic download of SAP corrections in System Recommendations are only available in Solution Manager 7.2. Also, the dashboarding and interface monitoring capabilities are more advanced in the latest version of Solution Manager.

Q: How many environments and systems can you monitor with Solution Manager?
A: There are no limits on the number of environments or systems that can be monitored by Solution Manager. However, Solution Manager must be appropriately sized to monitor large landscapes.

Q: How long does it take to configure the security applications?
A: Typical implementation timeframes are between 2-4 weeks for mid-sized landscapes.

Q: If security applications are available in standard installations of Solution Manager, why do we need to work with SAP Partners such as Layer Seven Security to configure these components?
A: Solution Manager provides the framework and the tools to perform advanced security monitoring. However, the standard installation of Solution Manager does not provide sufficient content for security monitoring. The content is developed, maintained and supported by Layer Seven Security. This includes patent-pending custom security policies, BW infoproviders, service level reports, monitoring objects and guided procedures. The content is licensed by SAP customers from Layer Seven Security and imported or transported into Solution Manager.

Q: What are the benefits of using Solution Manager for security monitoring versus third party tools ?

A: There are many advantages for using Solution Manager over third party tools. The most significant is lower cost: licensing and importing content for Solution Manager is less expensive than licensing entire platforms and solutions for SAP security monitoring. Solution Manager is also more flexible and customizable. It’s also recommended by SAP and supported and maintained directly by SAP. For further information, download the comparison chart.

Q: Does Layer Seven Security provide online demos for security monitoring using Solution Manager?
A: Yes, you can request a demo here.

Q: Does Layer Seven Security provide free readiness checks and trials for security monitoring using Solution Manager?
A: Yes, we offer free readiness checks to discover and remove any configuration gaps in Solution Manager to support security monitoring. We also provide free trials for Layer Seven’s custom security content. The trials can be performed remotely or on-site for up to 5 systems.

Q: Who shall I contact for further information?
A: Please call Layer Seven Security at 1-647-964-7370 or email info@layersevensecurity.com