The risk of unpatched systems is consistently reported as one of the top three threats to SAP systems in every survey of SAP customers performed by SAPinsider since 2021. Regularly implementing SAP security notes is reported as the most significant action performed by organizations to secure their SAP solutions. Security notes provide include corrections for known vulnerabilities in SAP software. They are released by SAP on Patch Tuesday, the second Tuesday of each month.
Keeping up with SAP patches is reported as the first or second greatest cybersecurity challenge confronted by SAP customers. This is due to several factors including:
High volume of security notes
Maintaining system availability
Validating calculated notes
Prioritizing security notes
The whitepaper Security Patching for SAP Solutions from Layer Seven Security includes best practices to overcome these challenges. It provides a comprehensive framework for discovering, analyzing and implementing SAP security notes. The whitepaper includes clear and practical recommendations from the leaders in SAP cybersecurity to automate and optimize security patching procedures for SAP.
Maintenance Planner is a cloud solution from SAP that supports the planning and administration of systems in SAP landscapes. It is the successor to Maintenance Optimizer and Landscape Planner and consolidates and simplifies tasks such as system installation, updates, upgrades and conversions.
Maintenance Planner is hosted on the SAP Support Portal. It maintains an inventory of SAP systems in customer landscapes. The inventory can be viewed using the Explore Systems tile.
Landscapes can also be analyzed using graphical topologies in Hybrid Landscape Visualization.
Explore Systems provides detailed software information for each system such as product versions, components and stack levels, as well as tracks and dependencies. Tracks are used to group related systems and streamline maintenance.
Maintenance Planner identifies products that are out of maintenance, third-party add-ons installed in SAP systems, and inconsistencies between displayed software components and installed components in systems. The software information is sourced by Maintenance Planner directly from the Landscape Management Landscape Database (LMDB) in SAP Solution Manager. The information is synchronized with the LMDB every day via the SAP-OSS connection between Solution Manager and SAP Support.
Upgrade Dependency Analyzer (UDA) is integrated with Maintenance Planner to help identify the impact of maintenance tasks in dependant systems. Maintenance Planner identifies and downloads the required software packages for planned upgrades or new systems. It also supports conversion tasks for migration from SAP ERP to S/4HANA. Finally, Maintenance Planner includes guided workflows to discover and integrate SAP cloud solutions.
Maintenance Planner calculates and displays recommended notes for systems in each landscape. The notes are analyzed and managed using the View Recommended Notes tile. It supports searching, filtering, grouping, sorting, and exporting of results. The Calculate Notes option displays relevant notes for selected systems. Notes are grouped by category including Security, Hot News, Performance and Legal Change. You can select a note from the available categories to view the details. CVE, CVSS and vector information is provided for SAP Security Notes.
Maintenance Planner can track the implementation lifecycle of notes using the Processing Status option. The following values are supported for the option:
Transferring: Note is transferred for implementation In Progress: Note implementation is in progress Not Relevant: Invalid or irrelevant note for the system
A Comments field is also included for users to provide additional information related to the implementation status of each note.
Maintenance Planner provides an alternative to System Recommendations for discovering and managing required notes in SAP systems. However, unlike System Recommendations, Maintenance Planner does not identify SAP HANA, Web Dispatcher and platform-related notes. Also, it does not integrate with Change Request Management (ChaRM), Usage and Procedure Logging (UPL), ABAP Call Monitor (SCMON), and Solution Documentation for the full lifecycle management of notes and automated change impact analysis to support test planning.
System Recommendations (SysRec) in SAP Solution Manager automatically calculates relevant security notes for SAP systems based on the available software and application components in each system. It provides a cross-system view for required notes using a customizable, user-friendly interface.
The use of SysRec is recommended by SAP for the lifecycle management of notes. It connects directly to SAP Support to perform a daily or weekly check for new notes. It identifies prerequisite and side-effect notes. It also identifies support packages for notes. Corrections can be downloaded directly through SysRec and staged automatically in systems. SysRec integrates with Change Request Management (ChaRM) for applying notes. It also supports change impact analysis for test planning through integration with the Business Process Change Analyzer (BPCA). Usage statistics for impacted objects are included in SysRec through integration with Usage and Procedure Logging (UPL) and the ABAP Call Monitor (SCMON).
Despite these benefits, there is one major drawback for SysRec. Based on an analysis performed by Layer Seven Security, an average of 30 percent of security notes reported in SysRec are false positives. The notes are irrelevant since the impacted application components are not installed in the relevant SAP systems. The process of manually reviewing notes in SysRec in order to identify and remove false positives is time-consuming, especially for large SAP landscapes. It can also lead to delays in the implementation of corrections to address security vulnerabilities in SAP solutions.
SysRec calculates notes for systems based on software information sourced from the Landscape Managed Database (LMDB) in SAP Solution Manager. The LMDB includes details of software components and versions for each system. This information supports not only SysRec, but Root Cause Analysis and System Monitoring in Solution Manager, and the Maintenance Planner in the SAP Support Portal. The data is synched from the System Landscape Directory (SLD). Therefore, one of the root causes of false positives in SysRec is the incomplete registration of systems in the SLD and synchronization issues between between the SLD and LMDB. Other root causes are job or connection errors during the runtime for the SysRec calculation. The LMDB can be kept in sync with the SLD by using the resynchronization option in the LMDB. Job and connection errors can be identified and alerted for using Job Monitoring and Interface Connection Monitoring in SolMan.
However, system maintenance, synchronization, and monitoring does not remove all false positives in SysRec. This is often a major source of frustration for SAP customers. The Cybersecurity Extension for SAP automatically identifies and removes false positives in SysRec by validating if the application components for notes are installed in SAP systems. Security notes for components that are not installed are marked as ‘Irrelevant’. Irrelevant notes can be removed using filters to improve the quality and reliability of results in System Recommendations.
The Cybersecurity Extension for SAP also enriches SysRec results by including information such as the CVE, CVSS and Vector for each note. This information supports the analysis and prioritizing of security notes based on risk and impact.
SAP Focused Run delivers real-time application monitoring, alerting and analytics for large-scale SAP landscapes and hosting providers that need to monitor customer SAP installations from a central platform. It leverages the power of SAP HANA to support centralized monitoring for thousands of systems in high-volume environments. Focused Run is intended to complement SAP Solution Manager in SAP landscapes by substituting configuration, integration, system, and user monitoring scenarios from SolMan. However, Solution Manager is required for all other scenarios including change management, patch management, custom code management, business process monitoring, service management, and test management.
This article explores the capabilities of the Advanced Configuration Monitoring (ACM) scenario in Focused Run. Scenarios such as Advanced Event and Alert Management (AEM), Advanced Integration Monitoring (AIM) and Advanced User Monitoring (AUM) will be discussed in later posts. ACM includes Configuration and Security Analytics (CSA), accessed from the Fiori launchpad of Focused Run. CSA enables SAP users to analyze the configuration of applications, databases and hosts and automate audits for security compliance. The following short video from SAP provides a quick introduction to CSA: Advanced Configuration Monitoring
CSA analyzes configuration data collected and transferred via the Simple Diagnostics Agent (SDA) from SAP systems. Focused Run does not include a built-in Business Warehouse (BW). Therefore, unlike Solution Manager, configuration data is stored in HANA database tables starting with CCDB_DATA_ rather than BW InfoCubes. This simplifies the architecture and improves the performance for configuration analysis. The tables are read by the Configuration and Change Database (CCDB). Configuration changes are tracked to support change and trend analysis. This includes changes to security-relevant parameters, services, RFC destinations, and user privileges. The CCDB contains snapshots of SAP systems. The configuration data is structured in containers known as config stores. The stores can be updated every hour to maintain up-to-date snapshots of SAP systems. The stores can be queried using the search option in CSA. The config store below displays the current values for all profile parameters in system FR1.
The following store contains details of user assigned critical profiles. User related stores can be customized to extract details for specific profiles, roles, user types, authorizations, and combinations of roles and authorizations.
CSA can be used to configure and apply policies that analyze config stores to audit systems and automate compliance checks. Policy Maintenance in CSA enables users to create XML policies. Policies can also be converted from target systems in Configuration Validation from SAP Solution Manager. Policies can be exported and imported as XML files or transported between Focused Run installations. SAP recommends limiting the number of checks in single policies to 100 to restrict the number of SQL statements. However, single policies can be combined into composite policies to execute thousands of checks in parallel. In the example below, the composite policy ABAP Parameters includes multiple single policies for reviewing security-relevant parameters in ABAP systems.
In order to apply a generated single or composite policy to audit SAP systems, you must first define the scope of systems. Systems can be grouped by Customer ID, Data Center, IT Admin Role (Environment) and other variables (see below). Customer ID can be used to group systems by company or business group.
The next step is to select and apply the required single or composite policy. The results below summarize the compliance status of systems in the L7_FRUN group against the ABAP Parameters composite policy.
Users can drilldown into the findings for each system to focus on parameters that failed the policy check.
You can click on the icon at the end of each rule to view further details.
The current value of the parameter is displayed in the Value column. The results can be exported to Excel for offline analysis.
Policy checks can be scheduled for hourly, daily or weekly intervals in Policy Management.
The results of the scheduled checks can be displayed in Trend Analysis. This provides a graphical analysis of compliance levels for each interval of the report.
Focused Run does not include the equivalent of System Recommendations in SAP Solution Manager for discovering and applying security notes. SAP periodically publishes policies for security notes to GitHub. The policies can be downloaded and imported into Focused Run to check for the implementation status of relevant notes in each system. This approach can lead to inconsistencies between System Recommendations and Focused Run since calculated notes may not align between the solutions. The Cybersecurity Extension for SAP Focused Run from Layer Seven Security integrates System Recommendations with Focused Run to ensure calculated notes are consistent between both platforms. The CSA policy below displays all security notes calculated by System Recommendations. The results can be filtered by system and priority. With this approach, SAP customers do not need to manually update FRUN with new policies for security notes. Calculated notes are updated automatically daily.
The beta release of the Cybersecurity Extension for SAP Focused Run is scheduled for Q3 2022 and will include additional config stores to supplement the security content in the CCDB, preconfigured single and composite policies for ABAP, HANA and Java systems, and monitoring templates to support alerting for SAP logs including the Security Audit Log and the HANA audit log.
Regularly patching SAP systems is the single most important action you can take to secure business-critical SAP applications from cyber threats. Despite the concern surrounding zero-day vulnerabilities, every known SAP exploit targets existing vulnerabilities patched by SAP through security notes. In other words, there is no evidence of the exploitation of zero-day vulnerabilities for SAP applications. However, there is a multitude of evidence for the exploitation of known vulnerabilities that have been fully patched by SAP.
This includes well-known SAP vulnerabilities such as ICMAD, RECON and 10KBLAZE. Notes 3123396 and 3123427 patch SAP for ICMAD. Note 2934135 secures SAP against RECON exploits. Protection against 10KBLAZE can be applied through notes 1408081, 821875, and 1421005. Some the notes for 10KBLAZE have been available since 2006. This is 13 years before CISA released an alert for the exploits.
Organizations take an average of three months to implement hot news notes for critical SAP vulnerabilities. Yet threat actors can weaponize SAP vulnerabilities within 72 hours of a patch release. Therefore, it is important to minimize the window of opportunity for attackers by rapidly discovering, analyzing and implementing SAP security notes.
Most software tools for SAP patch management automate the discovery of SAP security notes but do not support notes analysis and implementation. System Recommendations (SysRec) is the only solution that supports the full lifecycle of SAP security notes. SysRec is a standard application in SAP Solution Manager, recommended by SAP for patch management. It is automatically enabled during the installation and setup of Solution Manager.
For notes discovery, SysRec performs a daily check for the latest security notes. Therefore, customers are notified immediately as soon as new notes are released by SAP. SysRec connects directly to the SAP Support Portal to identify new notes. It calculates relevant notes based on software information for SAP systems stored in the Landscape Management Database (LMDB). The LMDB is synced to the SAP NetWeaver System Landscape Directory (SLD). The SLD is the source of system information in SAP landscapes including installed software components, databases and operating systems and the versions of components and platforms. Notes calculation takes into account the implementation status of notes. Therefore, fully implemented notes are automatically excluded by SysRec.
It is important to note that the results returned by SysRec are based on installed components, regardless of usage. All installed components must be maintained and patched even if they are not actively used since they are part of the attack surface.
System Recommendations is widely used by SAP administrators to manage not only SAP security notes but also correction, legal, performance and other notes. SAP security teams that rely on third party solutions for notes discovery often clash with SAP administrators since security notes returned by their tools do not align with the results of SysRec. SAP administrators are inclined to trust the results of SAP applications such as SysRec over third party solutions. This can lead to disputes and delays within organizations as SAP administration and security teams fail to align on the notes that should be implemented. The risk is avoided when both teams use System Recommendations and are therefore aligned on the required security notes.
SysRec supports detailed notes analysis through integration with Usage and Procedure Logging (UPL) and the ABAP Call Monitor (SCMON). UPL and SCMON support change impact analysis by revealing function modules, methods, programs and other objects impacted by security notes before they are applied. It includes usage statistics for impacted objects. This information enables SAP administrators to determine the scope and extent of testing for security notes. Notes impacting many objects with high usage counts may require detailed integration or regression testing. Conversely, notes impacting few objects with low usage counts indicates that customers may be able to employ less complex and more rapid test approaches such as smoke tests. Change impact analysis in SysRec provides the insights required by SAP customers to pinpoint the effect of security notes in SAP systems. This addresses the root cause of long patch cycles that increase the period of vulnerability for SAP systems.
System Recommendations enables users to download corrections from the SAP Support Portal directly to the target SAP system. This is performed using the option for Integrated Desktop Actions. The user is prompted to select the target system before the download and can therefore select non-productive SIDs when analyzing notes for productive SIDs. SysRec automatically calls SNOTE in the target system after the download to apply the note.
Integrated Desktop Actions also enables users to create a Request for Change (RfC) in Change and Request Management (ChaRM) for security notes. ChaRM is commonly used by SAP customers to manage the lifecycle of SAP changes and includes workflows to control requests including phases for requirements, approval, testing, and promotion to production.
If you would like to learn more about patching SAP systems using System Recommendations, request a pre-release of Layer Seven Security’s new whitepaper for SAP Security Patching, scheduled for Q3 2022.
International threat intelligence agencies including the U.S Cybersecurity & Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) and the Computer Emergency Response Team for the EU (CERT-EU) issued security advisories last week for critical vulnerabilities in the SAP Internet Communication Manager (ICM). The ICM supports inbound and outbound communication with SAP systems using the HTTP(S) protocol. It is a standard component of the NetWeaver Application Server ABAP and Java and the SAP Web Dispatcher.
The advisories relate to CVE-2022-22536, CVE-2022-22532 and CVE-2022-22533, labelled ICMAD (Internet Communication Manager Advanced Desync). The most critical is CVE-2022-22536: a memory corruption vulnerability that can be exploited through a single HTTP request to fully compromise SAP systems, remotely and without authentication. This impacts AS ABAP and the Web Dispatcher when they are accessed through an HTTP gateway. For AS ABAP, the gateway could be the Web Dispatcher. The vulnerability does not impact direct access to SAP application servers. CVE-2022-22532 impacts AS Java only. This vulnerability has a lower CVSS than CVE-2022-22536 due to a higher attack complexity, but ranks high in terms of impact to Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability. CVE-2022-22533 is for a lower priority denial of service vulnerability in AS Java triggered by requests that exhaust Memory Pipes (MPI) used for communicating between the ICM and work processes in application servers.
There is evidence of active scanning for ICMAD. SAP systems exposed to the Internet are especially vulnerable. External-facing Web Dispatchers are equally vulnerable. Consequently, it is critical to apply the relevant security notes to patch SAP systems against ICMAD.
Note 3123396 patches AS ABAP and the Web Dispatcher for CVE-2022-22536. SAP Kernels and Web Dispatchers should be updated to the minimum patch levels detailed in the note. The workaround detailed in note 3137885 can be applied as a stop-gap measure if the patches cannot be implemented at short notice. For access through the Web Dispatcher, refer to 3137885 to ensure that Web Dispatcher installations meet the minimum patch level. To apply the workaround, the profile parameter wdisp/additional_conn_close should be set to TRUE. For more details, refer to note 3138881.
Note 3123427 patches AS Java for CVE-2022-22532 and CVE-2022-22533. The workaround recommended in the note can be applied using the parameter setting icm/handle_http_pipeline_requests=FALSE if support for HTTP pipeline requests is not required.
The Cybersecurity Extension for SAP discovers vulnerable ABAP, Java and Web Dispatcher installations that have not been successfully patched for ICMAD. It also identifies missing or incorrectly applied workarounds if the corrections in notes 3123396 and 3123427 have not been applied. The SAP-certified solution performs over 1800 checks for known vulnerabilities in SAP applications and components and supporting databases and operating systems.
Log4JShell is one of the most dangerous security vulnerabilities in decades. It can be exploited remotely with minimal complexity and without authentication to execute arbitrary code that could lead to the complete compromise of vulnerable applications.
Log4Shell impacts Log4J, a widely installed open-source Java logging utility. A dangerous zero-day remote code execution vulnerability in Log4J was reported in November last year. The vulnerability was patched in December and published in the National Vulnerability Database on December 12 as CVE-2021-44228.
Log4Shell was added to the Known Exploited Vulnerabilities (KEV) Catalog by the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) due to evidence of widespread active exploitation of the vulnerability by multiple threat actors. This includes nation state groups originating from China, Iran, Russia and North Korea. According to some reports, threat actors are exploiting the vulnerability to deploy ransomware payloads or to gain access to target networks. The access is then brokered to other threat actors.
Log4J is bundled in multiple SAP solutions including products such as SAP HANA and SAP Process Orchestration. Download the new whitepaper from Layer Seven Security to learn to mitigate and detect Log4Shell in SAP applications. The whitepaper includes a detailed breakdown of the vulnerability, guidance for patching and securing SAP solutions, and recommendations for detecting Log4shell signatures and indicators of compromise.
The US Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) issued Binding Operational Directive 22-01 on November 3 to compel government departments and agencies to remediate specific vulnerabilities with known exploits. According to CISA, the vulnerabilities pose a significant risk to information systems. This includes several vulnerabilities for SAP applications that must be remediated by May 3, 2022. Agencies have 60 days to review and update their vulnerability management policies in accordance with the Directive.
The Directive addresses weaknesses with the Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) used for rating Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE) in the National Vulnerability Database (NVD). CVSS does not take into account active exploitations for vulnerabilities. Most critical CVEs are highly complex and have no known exploits. The Directive shifts the focus to CVEs with active threats. These vulnerabilities are prioritized for remediation and are classified in the CISA catalog for Known Exploited Vulnerabilities (KEV).
The catalog includes six CVEs for SAP applications.
CVE-2010-5326 is for the invoker servlet implemented in the InvokerServletclass within the Web Container of the J2EE for SAP NetWeaver Application Java (AS Java). The invoker servlet is vulnerable to authentication bypass, enabling remote attackers to execute arbitrary code via HTTP or HTTPS requests. The servlet is disabled by default in higher versions of AS Java. Refer to SAP note 1445998 for disabling the relevant property of the servlet_jsp service on server nodes. SAP also recommends scanning or reviewing application code to identify the usage of servlets with the prefix “/servlet/”. Applications should use local servlets only that are defined in web.xml files. Auth constraints in web xml files are recommended to restrict the invoking of the servlet to users with an administrative role.
CVE-2016-3976 relates to a directory traversal vulnerability in AS Java that could be exploited to read arbitrary files from servers remotely and without authentication using CrashFileDownloadServlet. Note 2234971 provides a patch for the LM-CORE to address the CVE.
CVE-2020-6287 is for the RECON vulnerability in the LM Configuration Wizard of AS Java. Attackers can exploit a missing authentication check in the CTCWebService to perform administrative functions such as creating privileged users. Note 2934135 includes a patch to validate user input for log paths and block arbitrary log file locations and extensions.
CVE-2018-2380 relates to a directory traversal vulnerability in SAP CRM. There is a publicly-available exploit for the CVE that could be deployed to perform remote code execution through log file injection. Note 2547431 includes a patch to validate user input for log paths and block arbitrary log file locations and extensions.
CVE-2016-9563 is for a Denial of Service vulnerability in a BPM service within AS Java. This CVE also has a publicly-available exploit. Note 2296909 disables the resolving of external entities during XML parsing to address the CVE.
CVE-2020-6207 relates to a missing authentication check for the SAP EEM servlet in SAP Solution Manager. A module for the Metasploit penetration framework automates the exploitation of the CVE. This could be exploited to execute OS commands on connected SMDAgents via the /EemAdminService/EemAdmin page for User Experience Monitoring. Note 2890213 includes a patch for the impacted LM-SERVICE software component and instructions for a temporary workaround involving enabling authentication for the EemAdmin service in the Java stack of Solution Manager.
The Cybersecurity Extension for SAP is an SAP-certified solution that automates the discovery of applications vulnerable to the CVEs for SAP applications in the KEV catalog. It also monitors SAP logs to detect the signature of exploits targeting the CVEs and provides mechanisms to investigate and respond to the exploits.
Focused Insights is an advanced dashboard framework that was previously available only for MaxAttention customers as part of the MaxAttention Next Generation Add-On (MANGO) but is now available for all SAP customers. Focused Insights can now be installed in SAP Solution Manager 7.2 without any additional SAP licensing or user and usage restrictions.
Focused Insights for SAP Solution Manager provides ready-to-use templates for monitoring a range of KPIs for SAP landscapes. Customers can select from over 800 best practice KPIs for multiple use cases. The framework is organized in three levels: Operational, Governance and Strategic. Security metrics are monitored primarily in the Tactical Dashboard, accessible from the Focused Insights Launchpad.
The Tactical Dashboard can monitor several instances. Instances are groups of systems geared for different users or groups. Instances are setup and maintained using the TAC Configuration option. This includes relevant systems, scenarios and thresholds for KPIs.
The current version of the dashboard supports eleven scenarios such as Availability, Performance, Operations, and Security. Each scenario is rated green, red or yellow based on the thresholds and options maintained in the configuration.
The Dashboard is refreshed automatically every 10 minutes but the frequency can be changed from 5 to 30 minutes and maintained separately for each instance.
The security scenario supports monitoring of security metrics for ABAP, HANA, and Java systems and the SAP Web Dispatcher. It reports the number of very high (hot news) and high rated security notes that are unapplied in each system, users with critical privileges including the SAP_ALL profile, systems that are open for direct changes, insecure client settings, RFC destinations configured with privileged users, and misconfigurations in specific security-relevant profile parameters. Notes information is sourced from System Recommendations in SAP Solution Manager. The results of other security checks are derived from Configuration Validation using target systems supplied by SAP.
Focused Insights 2.0 SP7 and higher supports the integration of custom target systems with the security scenario in the Tactical Dashboard. This can be used to support monitoring for additional security checks beyond the SAP standard delivery.
Security monitoring using SAP Solution Manager is driven by a series of background jobs that automate data collection and analysis for system vulnerabilities, security notes, and event logs. Vulnerability data is extracted daily, notes information is collected weekly, and event data can be collected as frequently as every minute. Any interruption to the background jobs for these areas could impact the coverage of security monitoring.
SAP Solution Manager supports centralized monitoring for jobs in SAP systems with automated detection and alerting for job errors. Monitoring for scheduled jobs is setup using a guided procedure that includes steps for selecting relevant jobs, activating alerts, and enabling email/ SMS notifications for alerts.
You can access Job Monitoring from Application Operations in SAP Solution Manager Configuration.
Steps 1-3 of the guided procedure prepare the infrastructure for job monitoring including setup of the required users. Steps 4-6 involve the selection of scheduled jobs for monitoring and configuring alerts and notifications. In the following example, we will create a monitoring scenario for the standard job SM:SYSTEM RECOMMENDATIONS. This job connects to SAP Support on a weekly schedule to calculate required security, correction, performance, legal, and other notes for systems. It also connects to managed systems to determine the implementation status of calculated notes.
In the first step of the scenario configuration, we define a name and description for the scenario.
During the second step, we select the systems for the scenario. Since SM:SYSTEM RECOMMENDATIONS runs from Solution Manager, we will select a SolMan installation.
Next, we maintain the scope for the scenario in terms of the specific job.
Once the job is selected, we can adjust the metric settings including thresholds for job errors, processing times, terminations and warnings.
Finally, we activate the alerting and select the required language, severity and description for the alert.
Recipients for email notifications triggered for alerts can be maintained in the Incident and Notifications tab.
Once the scenario is activated in the final step, we will be immediately alerted and notified by Solution Manager for any issue that interrupts the successful execution of the system recommendations job. The steps can be repeated for other scheduled jobs in SAP Solution Manager and managed systems.